In the field of physical security and information security, access control is the selective restriction of access to a place or other resource while access management represents the process. Actions of access can be defined as consuming, entering, or using. Permission to access resources is called authorization.
The way it works itself, such as to secure facilities, companies use electronic systems that rely on user credentials, access card readers, audits, and reports to track employee access to restricted business locations and ownership areas, such as data centers. Some of these systems incorporate access control panels to restrict entry to rooms and buildings as well as alarm and locking capabilities to prevent unauthorized access or operation.
Use of Access Control
The purpose of access control is to minimize the risk of unauthorized access to physical and logical systems. A fundamental component of a security program that ensures security technologies and policies are in place to protect confidential information, such as customer data. Most organizations have infrastructure and procedures that restrict access to sensitive networks, computer systems, applications, files, and data, such as personally identifiable information and company revenues.
Access control systems are complex and can be challenging to manage in an IT environment. However, to make it dynamic, internal systems and cloud services are needed. After several high-profile breaches, technology vendors have shifted from single-access systems to unified access management, offering both cloud and cloud on-premises environments.
Access Control is a process that is integrated into an organized IT environment. This involves an identity and access management system. These systems provide software, user databases, and management tools for policy, auditing and law enforcement.
When users are added to the access management system, system administrators use an automatic provisioning system to set permissions based on access control frameworks, job responsibilities and workflows.
The best practices of “most privileged” limit access to resources to only those employees who need to perform their immediate job functions.
A common security issue is failure to revoke credentials and access to systems and data when someone internally moves to a different job or leaves the company.